A state of art and a description of the different flight control system architectures (for subsequent analysis) will be done. The requirements will be defined according to aircraft type selected.
The aircraft type and size will be selected based on current information available. A few architectures will be explored, studied and discussed in order select the most appropriate among the next: large commercial aircraft (A330/A340 class), regional aircraft (ATR architectures), Transport aircraft (10-Ton class) and 100-seater Sukhoi Superjet 100.
This task will include the following actions:
Consideration of various flight control actuation system (FCAS) architectures which comply with the system requirements defined in WP1.1. These considerations will be mainly done in terms of system power source and its onboard layout. So architectures can be separated at high level into the following types, where FCAS is powered by:
- Airborne hydraulic systems.
- Local hydraulic systems.
- Airborne electrical system.
- Combined power sources.
- Analysis of the considered architectures in terms of energy efficiency, weight and dimensions with respect to current and advanced technological levels Consideration of future trends for possible FCAS for MEA or AEA characteristics improvement.
Axis 1: HUMS — Health Monitoring of the FCASA HUMS solution for the system will be developed in this project in order to fulfil the Safety requirements, to improve the Reliability and to reduce the maintenance costs associated to unscheduled removals.
The HUMS comprises 3 different levels:
- Usage Monitoring, establishing parts to be monitored.
- Detection of faults and failures, diagnosis including identification and isolation of failures.
- Prognosis, to predict the useful life of the items before failure, based on usage Monitoring.
The results of the HUMS will be implemented in the design of the components of the Systems, in order to obtain a more Reliable system, and to reduce the maintenance costs, improving the dispatchability of the aircraft.
Axis 2: Safety assessment — Safety assessment of the considered FCAS Within the system safety assessment axis will be realized the following activities:
- Identification of the most severe failure conditions for existing flight control systems and derivation of the qualitative and quantitative safety requirements.
- Assessment of the compliance of the architecture with the applicable qualitative safety requirements (“no single failure leading to catastrophic events”) and identification of related segregation requirements.
- Assessment of the compliance of the architecture with the applicable quantitative safety requirement (acceptable probability of failure occurrence per flight/hour) and identification of available safety margins.
These activities will be conducted following the recommended practices of ARP4754A and the assessment will be done using classical means (e.g. Fault Tree Analysis or Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) and simulation models of the failure propagation in the flight control system (new analysis mean proposed in ARP4761).
The System ECU requirements will be defined in order to comply with:
- Aircraft power supply for the ECU and allowable power consumption.
- Space envelope and weight.
- Functional blocks.
- EMI/EMC and lightning protections.
- Analogical and digital data to be managed.
- Health Monitoring integration.
- Communication between actuators, to control the extension and retraction of the different actuators and avoid the force fighting.
- Reliability and safety requirements to comply with the MTBF.
- Environmental Requirements and test to be done.
- Redundant SECU in order to avoid a single failure affecting Flight Safety/Reliability requirements.
Axis 1: Definition of the requirements and specifications for EMA This subtask will mainly be done by CESA with the participation of TsAGI, ONERA and MAI. Definition will be done through actuators work regimes analysis based on the conclusion of WP1.1 and WP1.2. During this task requirements and specification to EMA will be defined in terms of:
- Dynamic characteristics – frequency responses, velocity characteristics and dynamic stiffness.
- Stall load (maximum force which actuator can fight at zero velocity) and range of workloads in which EMA can operate without critical drop of its velocity.
- Characteristics at low input control signals to provide the acceptable level of closed control loop “A/C-FCAS” self-oscillation.
- Safety characteristics – complete failure and controlled fault probability, and uncontrolled fault with/without displacement probability.
- Backup possibility (damping mode presence).
- Possible design, kinematic scheme and reducer type.
- Overall power of electric motor and reduction rate required.
Axis 2: Definition of the requirements and specifications for EHA This subtask will mainly be done by TsAGI with the consultative help of ONERA thanks to their experience and UAC as a consumer. The requirements and specifications for EHA will be defined in the same as for EMA (see above).
Axis 3: Definition of the requirements and specifications for the System Test Rig — Definition of the requirements and specifications for the System Test Rig Within this subtask the requirements and specifications will be defined to which the system test rig has to comply in terms of:
- Geometry, Mechanical Stress, Electrical Power supply in order to be able to conduct the tests in WP5.2 depending on choices in WP1.1 and 1.2.
- Sensors for EMC and thermal measurements in order to be able to conduct the tests in WP5.2 and to deliver the data inputs for WP2.3 and WP2.4 depending on choices in WP1.1 and 1.2.
- Thermal boundary conditions (location of actuators and ECUs, management of environmental conditions, temperature, heat rejection, cooling management, etc.) in order to be able to follow the test procedures defined in WP5.1 during the tests in WP5.2 and the tests foreseen in WP2.3.
- The stability of the electrical network by means of Line Impedance Stabilization Networks (LISN) at power supply level.
Mathematical models of EMA/EHA and SECU will be developed within this task. This will be done by three iteration steps.
Existing experience of EMA/EHA and SECU common operating principles will be used on the first step for initial mathematical model creation. These mathematical models will be used for actuators static and dynamic characteristics research before actuator development. Mathematical models developed on this step should be simple enough to use it for A/C simulation in real-time but reflect actuator main properties in the same time. This will provide actuators requirements clarification and the ability to go to first step of the mathematical simulation of A/C motion.
Desired actuators development decisions made during WP3 tasks will be the base for correcting initial mathematical models of EMA and EHA to make them more precise. And again the clarification loop closes.
The experimental data, obtained in WP5, will be utilized to maximize determination of the mathematical models during the third step of iteration. All models developed will include sub-models for the following actuator elements:
- Mechatronic module.
- Reducer (reduction ratio, blind zone, stiffness, inertia).
- Possible failures.
Analysis of mathematical models will include closed and open control loop analysis in both time and frequency domains. The analysis will also include failure mode and energy system modelling.
The task will be done under TsAGI leadership with participation of MAI, CESA and Tecnalia.
Peculiarities of actuator dynamic characteristics may give considerable influence to the following characteristics of an aircraft with FCS:
- “Aircraft-FCS” closed loop dynamic characteristics: stability margins, transient responses etc. (stability characteristics and flying qualities).
- “Aircraft-FCS” stability at high inputs, i.e. stability at pilot command signals and disturbances (especially wind disturbances) of large magnitude, taking into account nonlinearity of actuator characteristics at large input signals.
- “Aircraft-FCS” stability at small inputs, i.e. presence of self-induced oscillations with small magnitude, due to the nonlinearity of actuator characteristics at very small input signals.
That’s why the objective of this task is to simulate dynamics of A/C with EMA and/or EHA as primary flight control actuators. Mathematical simulation will be performed for all candidate FCAS architectures developed in WP1. The results obtained will be utilized as an input for WP3 with the purpose of more precise definition of demands to electrically-powered actuators dynamical characteristics. HIL simulation will serve as definitive demonstration that dynamic characteristics of A/C with EMA/EHA developed conforms to available flying qualities specifications especially in terms of stability margins.
Operation of FCS flight envelope protection algorithms, particularly α, n-limiters. The modelling will be done for the following control loop in which actuator will be presented as a model on the first step and as a prototype after its manufacturing on the second step during HIL simulation.
The task will be done mainly in TsAGI with the help of MAI, who will provide necessary information and modifications to actuator models if needed.
The objective is to simulate the thermal behaviour of all or parts of the system (ECU, EHA or EMA including wiring) depending of environmental conditions as thermal influences (cooling methodology, flight conditions, confined spaces, heat limitations versus surrounding materials (composite) and critical items. Detailed simulations completed by experimental data will be used to develop simplified models of wing box cavity based on a network approach. A stochastic problem is then treated to optimize the sensitivity and the accuracy of the simplified model by evaluating lead parameters and their influences. The new validated simple network model could substitute successfully for high-fidelity simulations in the management process. As a result heat withdrawal and dispersion technologies will be proposed to be implemented during the development phase.
Model of wiring losses: Starting from data established in WP 2.4, a model of the wiring thermal losses is developed and used to identify the thermal impact of a harness described in selected architectures and according to electrical loads imposed. The main objective of this task will be to describe the thermal behaviour of each elementary wire from its constituents (number of strands of core, thermo physics properties, part of insulation, convection and radiation, harness denseness).
Thermal description of actuator environment: Definition of a generic 3D geometry which is representative of the local environment of the ECU and EMA for the selected configuration. Definition of thermal constraints (peak/average heat rejection, flight critical conditions, air cooling characterization).
Simulation of actuator thermal environment for defined conditions: A detailed 3D CFD simulation is conducted to provide data to build a surrogate model based on network approach.
Development of a thermal model for actuator environment: Development of a network model of the actuator thermal environment, built from descriptions, design data and simulation results. A validation of the model will be conducted with experimental data provided by test rig analysis. An analysis will be performed to evaluate lead parameters and their influences.
The objective of this sub-task is to simulate numerically the conducted emission of the whole wiring system. The simulation will be carried out with ONERA’s CRIPTE software which is one of the reference codes for complex cable harness modelling. Such a model includes two main sub-models: the model of the wiring and the model of the equipment which act as terminal loads at the end of the wiring. The approach we propose will be to validate separately in two first steps both the wiring architecture model alone and the equipment model alone. Such validation will require some upgrades of CRIPTE’s currently available features. Then, those models of cable architecture and of equipment will be introduced in a whole model to simulate the conducted emission of the wiring system.
Model of wiring losses: Starting from conclusions of previous studies, the implementation of a model of wiring losses must be taken into account to model correctly the conducted responses of a harness. The main objective will be to describe the real losses of each elementary wire from its constituents (number of strands of core, electrical conductivity…) but also if possible the losses due to the influence of all wires inside a harness. The loss model will then be coded in ONERA’s CRIPTE Software.
Consideration of full wiring architecture (wiring and installation) in ONERA’s Tool (CRIPTE software): Starting from the architecture description stated in WP1.2, the modelling of all harnesses will be performed taking into account installation rules (functional links, segregation…). The main objective will be to check the capability of the CRIPTE Software to model a real complex architecture and to propose new upgrades if necessary.
Basic testing of wiring architectures: The wiring architecture model will be tested without models of real load and real sources models but with ideal loads and ideal sources to evaluate the relevance of the whole model. This subtask will thereby validate the new models defined and implemented in the previous sub-tasks (1 and 2).
State of the art on available electrical models: The main objective will be to reference the available electrical models of each equipment item of our system (full architecture) and to check if its electrical models are compatible with EMC tools, with a special emphasis on the modelling of conducted emissions. The capability to generate Thevenin’s model as input data and mainly in the frequency domain will be addressed in this subtask.
Description and development of Thevenin models: The main objective of the task will be to describe correctly the Thevenin models, i.e. the sources and the impedance matrix, of each equipment item (Power supply, ECU and SECU). Starting from the conclusion stated in the previous subtask, a time domain approach and/or a frequency domain approach will be considered. Note that experimental characterizations will be necessary if the analytical analyses don’t allow the definition of Thevenin’s models.
Testing of real wiring architectures: The wiring architectures will be tested with the real load models and real sources models in order to evaluate the conducted emission response of the wiring. The whole wiring model will thereby integrate all models of cables and equipment respectively defined and implemented. The numerical results will be compared to experimental results performed at system test ring (W5.2).
The task mainly aims at energy efficiency assessment of the technology of using SMART hydrosystems.
The task be done by TsAGI with participation of MAI during the following 2 steps:
- Development of pressure control algorithms for local hydrosystem which can be used in some variants of FCAS architectures. Such local hydrosystems can be called as SMART or Group EHA, because they power the group of traditional electrohydraulic actuators. In comparison to traditional centralized hydrosystem local hydrosystem can work with the principle “power on demand” so increasing the overall energy efficiency.
- A/C motion simulation with the use of developed algorithms of pressure control. This subtask will be done for implementing of architectures with local hydrosystem efficiency estimation.
The project will design an innovative and smart Electro-Mechanical Flight Control system primary actuator focused towards the study and validation of future oil less Power by Wire aircraft. EMA actuator will be based on a modular and efficient approach that will integrate easily exchangeable electric and mechanical components with sensors and control strategies that will allow automatic and autonomous safety control. The EMA will be designed including its dedicated Electronic Control Unit (ECU), a Built In Test equipment to detect potential failures and a disable device to guarantee compatibility with emergency actuation. Different configurations will be studied and evaluated to determine the optimum actuator architecture from a technical point of view. Volume, mass, electrical consumption, power to mass ratio, reliability, durability and safety are concepts that will drive the development.
The innovative concept of EMA actuation system, fully electrically powered, will assure a positive environmental impact by improving aircraft efficiency, with an increase in the Quality, and Reliability of the primary flight control actuation systems, maintaining the level of compliance of Flight Safety requirements.
The possible failure modes related to EMAs actuator are mostly actuator jamming of the actuator, actuator runaway, disconnection of the actuator, and the loss of control surface efficacy.
The cause of these failure modes are mainly due structural parts, electrical parts or the group comprised by gearings parts (basically bearings/screws drive).
Structural parts are leading primarily to the failure mode of disconnection of the actuator from the control surface and jamming effect, in a similar way than a Hydraulic/mechanical actuator. Therefore the way to resolve these failure modes is the used ones in current applications (fail safe design and analysis of probability of failure to fulfil the Airworthiness requirements).
Electrical parts are involved in several critical final effects (jamming of actuator by combination of failures, loss of surface control, runaway of the actuator), although the solution to resolve them is based in the application of redundancy in the design of the electronics/electrical parts.
The gearing group has also failures modes leading to the jamming of the actuator. However, the use of redundancy in this case do not resolve the problem, due to the failure in the gearing components of one actuator can lead to jamming of the actuator avoiding the movement of the control surface. The approach of Fault Tolerant system architecture is more complex, heavy and expensive. The other solution is to design an actuator tolerant to the jamming.
The “Advanced Flight Control System” actuator will be a direct drive actuator with single screw architecture with an anti-jamming system able to disconnect the flight surface from screw. The developed actuator, due to its anti-jamming system, is able to follow the movement imposed by the flight surface (moved by the other actuators), assuring the movement of the flight surface even in case of jamming of mechanical parts (including screw jamming) of one actuator.
Innovation of the proposed solution is the capability to act just in the root cause of jamming by acting directly in the source of the problem, not previously implemented in any airborne actuator. Typical solutions used in the past by using clutches between Gear Boxes and screws did not solve the root cause of main jamming problems because these kind of solutions avoid jamming events but only just before screws, like jamming in gear boxes, bearings or motors, but not the screw jamming itself. Other solutions used in the past were based on mechanical fuses that could be used in case of jamming although main disadvantage is the necessity of replacement of the fuse. No training or actuation tests could be performed with this kind of systems. However, this EMA has “Direct Drive” architecture so the best way to activate the proposed anti-jamming system.
This kind of back-up solution to avoid mechanical jamming in actuators is the safest way to solve the mayor jamming problems of electromechanical actuators between external nut and screw, even for roller or ball screws.
Its dedicated electronics (ECU) will be connected to a 28 VDC power supply, and the electromechanical actuator to a 270VDC network for normal extension/retraction. ECU will also include the necessary electronics to control the frameless BLDC motor and to manage the auxiliary 28V BLDC motor that controls anti-jamming electromechanical system.
In order to improve the Reliability and to reduce the maintenance costs associated to unscheduled removals, a HUMS solution for the EMA will be developed in this project.
It will include all the main parts of the EMA: electronics, motor, structural parts, sensors, gearing parts (involved in critical safety issues).
Task 3.2 ECU at actuator level development
ECU will be designed to include a Prognostic Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) to control and analyse the actuator status. Main functions of this ECU will be based on:
- Usage Monitoring, establishing parts to be monitored, including mechanical parts.
- Introduce different way to measure the status of critical parts that could limit or reduce the total life of system due to huge performance degradation along cycle.
- Measurement related to efficiency of system and how this efficiency evolves along cycles.
- Detection of faults and failures, diagnosis including identification and isolation of failures.
- Prognosis, to predict the useful life of the items before failure, based on usage Monitoring. The project will include the analysis and proposal of development of algorithms to anticipate the failure, avoiding the unscheduled removal of the equipment (Maintainability subject) or the critical situation from Flight Safety point of view. Moreover, it will allow improving the change from scheduled tasks (with higher costs) to CBM (Conditioned Based Maintenance), with maintenance tasks based on condition.
- When low efficiency or degradation evolution is declared, anti-jamming system activation will be managed by ECU and the status would be send to SECU.
- Life estimators depending on actuator status and signals from sensors.
- Particularly, the SECU will include Built in Test Equipment (BITE), based on Power-up BIT (PBIT) or Continuous BIT (CBIT), in charge of detecting any failure in mechanics or electronics by analyzing different Monitoring signals (like power/current supplied to motor), focusing the possible failure that avoids the normal operation of actuator when required/commanded. CBIT will manage the activation of the auxiliary anti-jamming electromechanical system in order to assure the actuation of the anti-jamming system.
- Control of actuator position in a cascade close loop to improve the actuator performances.
- Anti-jamming system is a REUSABLE SYSTEM for emergency, training, and maintenance after automatic sequence saved in ECU.
Within these tasks, TECNALIA will lead the detailed design of the EMA electronic control unit. In order to develop the electrical drive control unit (power inverter and control system) and to define the best control strategy, a detailed forward facing modelling approach of the entire actuator will be generated. Multidomain modelling techniques and automatic code generation capabilities will be used in order to accelerate the prototyping process of the solution. Also the analysis of the electrical behaviour such as harmonics THD, EMIS will be estimated.
As a final step of the conceptual design of the EMA, reliability aspects will be studied. Possible operating scenarios will be set and safety countermeasures will be designed. Mechanical safety and reliability systems will be applied as already pointed out in section 1.2 and also electric measures will be taken into account. An alarm status list will be proposed and related to possible system malfunctions. Every alarm scenario will be related to a system action performed by control software or specific physical components activation.
The power drive will be selected amongst state of the art components with proven reliability in aero applications. The power module will integrate the 6 IGBT´s of a two level inverter. The driver module will be developed ad hoc, featuring advanced Monitoring and diagnostics capabilities.
Additionally in these tasks, the firmware of the ECU (control loop regulation, communications and advanced diagnostics tools) will be developed using tools for rapid prototyping. A fully cascade position, speed and torque control will be implemented in the firmware using both: an absolute encoder with high resolution and sensorless techniques for rotor position estimation (based on motor current/ voltage measurements) in order to provide redundancy in motor control. Assembly and detailed part drawings and electric board schematics will be elaborated.
Electromechanical actuator development shall be composed of the following activities:
- Design of a BLDC frameless motor. / Umbra
- Design of the special anti-jamming system. / CESA
- Design of a special ball/roller screw. / Umbra
- Design of the dedicated ECU including the power electronics. / Tecnalia
- HUMS architecture to detect faults/failures and to evaluate the performance degradation along time inside actuator. / CESA
- Development of Safety Assessment that assures the compliance of Airworthiness requirements for the selected architecture of the System. / CESA
- Component Integration for an entire actuator. / CESA
Task 3.3 System ECU (SECU) development
The System Electronic Control Unit will include system management electronic, and a Built In Test equipment to detect SECU failures. Different configurations will be studied and evaluated to determine the optimum system architecture from a technical point of view. Volume, mass, electrical consumption, reliability, durability and safety are concepts that will drive the development. The following paragraphs present a preliminary architecture.
- Manage the commands sent by Flight Control Computer (FCC) via a redundant Field Data Bus to control the position of whole aerodynamic surface by means a position close loop by commanding actuators.
- EMA control techniques can be position control based or speed control based or a combination of the two; control techniques selection will be made as a trade off among hardware computational capability, software complexity and system performance.
- SECU will send to FCC flight surface status data and system Monitoring data.
- Control a unique aerodynamic surface with some actuators installed. For this purpose FORCE-FIGHTNINg architecture to control the operation in close loop of all actuators should be implemented to optimize the actuation and power consumption. Ideally, both electromechanical actuators could be commanded at same time and same speeds progressing at same velocity and share same load equally. Although, in a normal operation: Each actuator has different mechanics (friction) or electrics (Kt, Ke, R) characteristics, different commands will be sent due to communication delays having different speeds that produces that external force is not the same in each actuator and it can induce an overloaded operation of one actuator.
- HUMS to control all actuators and command the most efficient states to each actuator (active, standby or anti-jamming) depending on life estimation of each actuator, or a possible jam in one actuator.
Preliminary system performance evaluation has led to define a SECU that will have a redundant architecture where a twin boards set is embedded in the same mechanical box. Control board architecture will be based on a microcontroller device. Field Programmable Gate Array application will be evaluated during the system architecture development. Using the same data bus the ECUs communicate to the SECU position and speed data of the EMA. The capability of SECU to power on/power off the ECU will be investigated during the system development based on the system safety assessment. SECU Control board will implement Monitoring tasks to detect board failure and a SECU manager task to coordinate the activities between the control boards.
Task 3.4 Test rig module design
The objective of this task is the design of the test rig which will be composed by the structural part, the Control Panel (C/P), and a hydraulic jack controlled by a servo-valve for the simulation of the loads. The design process will consider results obtained in the previous WPs. In the following figure possible test bench architecture is shown. The structural part will be designed in order to accommodate 2 actuators, working together and operating against the same counter-load. Two EMAs along with its ECU one EHA demonstrator unit with an EMA will be installed and considering EMA features (EMA lever arm, equivalent linear inertia etc). One System Electronic Control Unit (SECU) that commands actuators will also be installed.
The real time controller on the C/P will provide to SECU mode of operations of the EMA, including the capability of failure injection. Moreover, it will manage the hydraulic system that acts on all EMAs/EHA in the same way in order to generate load profiles. Through the C/P, force and velocity set points will be managed by the user in the form of matrices of points according to the displacement detected by a linear optical encoder (installed in the load system). The force output will be processed internally in the C/P through the reading of a load cell placed in series to the axial force generation system. The velocity output will be sent and processed by the SECU.
The C/P and its dedicated software will manage Ground Test (GT), Power On Built-In Test (PBIT) and Continuous Built-In Test (CBIT) of the system. The GT and PBIT function must ensure the proper functioning of all devices in the bench. Starting the system, a no-load movement of the actuators will be provided in order to exclude any possible failures of the EMA/ECU/SECU/Drive. The CBIT function will include all the controls and actions on fault and its management. The following table shows some failures and its management as an example.
|Drive phase lost||Signal from drive||Speed Set-Point halved||Drive → C/P → SECU|
|Excessive Load or Current||Overload actuator (through comparison between the load cell value and max operating value) or overcurrent||Zero speed Set-Point and brake on||C/P → SECU|
Finally, the C/P will manage the selection, record, storage, plot and display the time-history of the main parameters of each EMA independently (applied load through load cells, position of the actuators, speed of the motors and phase electric motor currents and voltage).
RS232 serial interface will be considered for input and output signals of the C/P. According to other partners, other serial interface (ARINC-429 or RS-485) could be considered.
The bench will be connected to the industrial three-phase. The C/P will be provided with thermal protection (magneto-thermal differential) and solid protection. Appropriate transformers and rectifiers will be installed for electronic devices powering at lower voltages.
Also in this case, the final design will be evaluated with other partners at the CDR meeting (month 16).
Also special Test rig for HIL simulation will be designed in TsAGI in order to give the ability to test the closed control loop “A/C-FCS-actuator” for its stability margins. The test rig will incorporate the ability to:
- Control actuator with digital or analogue interfaces.
- Control hydraulic loading machine for flight loads (or other load profile) on actuators under test realization during HIL-simulation.
- Visualize A/C motion.
Within this task MAI will develop EHA with combined control of its rod velocity. This task will be done with the help of TsAGI, who will provide recommendations based on the test report on the first version of the EHA prototype, which was done in 2010.
The main specific issue of combined control EHA is the use of volume control (pump control) at high input control signals as traditional EHA and throttle control (valve control) at low input signals, control algorithm changes control type according to the input signal level, this change is done smoothly. This feature provides the energy efficiency of traditional EHAs, but with better dynamic characteristics at low input signals (blind zone is less) compared to traditional electro-hydraulic actuators. This type of EHA will provide optimal characteristics of A/C stability and controllability being integrated into its fly-by-wire system.
EHA Development will firstly include development of its structure that will ensure energy and dynamic requirements. After that, with the use of EHA specifications and requirements from WP1.5.2, the parameters of EHA main components to be developed will be determined.
Task 4.1 EMA manufacturing and validation
CESA will be in charge of the electromechanical actuator validation.
Manufacturing of demonstrator mechanical parts will be shared between CESA and Umbra according to specifications and development conclusions of the WP3.1 tasks. Ballscrews and motor-drive will be manufactured by Umbra. Assembly activities will be made within the CESA facilities.
After assembly and in order to check the correct operating conditions a validation of the EMA will be accomplish, according to plan and procedures issued in the previous work package.
Task 4.2 ECU manufacturing and validation
TECNALIA will be responsible of manufacturing and assembling the ECU validation unit Hardware parts and components defined during the detailed design stage and will be in charge of implementing the Software needed to drive the electric machine of the EMA and to implement health Monitoring functionalities to the system. Two ECUS will be assembled.
TECNALIA will also commission the ECU, fine tuning the drive and control parameters and adjusting the control loops by means of the mechatronic simulations that will have been conducted during Task 3.2. A final laboratory validation will take place at the end of the task including a physical and functional inspection process aimed at verifying that the assembled ECUs are acceptable with regards to the requirements collected in the specifications. Electrical outputs from the ECU will be measured and registered at different laboratory scenarios representative of the specified EMA missions and converted into electrical inputs to the ECU from the System ECU.
Validation of electronics at ECU level as well as EMA+ECU level will be performed by TECNALIA according to plan and procedures defined and agreed within the previous work package.
The activities of this task will led to the manufacturing of the SECU validation unit according to design conclusion achieved in the task 3.3. Umbra is responsible of the SECU manufacturing that will be made within the Umbra facilities. About 7 months have been considered for the manufacturing of this unit.
SECU validation will be performed according to plan and procedures defined and agreed.
Task 4.4 EHA demonstrator unit
The activities of this task will led to the manufacturing of EHA prototype with combined control based on new control algorithms according to design conclusion achieved in the task 3.5. TsAGI is responsible for EHA manufacturing that will be made with the help of subcontractors MAI and Voskhod. Already existing hydraulic part (hydraulic cylinder, reverse-control valve and pump) for EHA made at PMZ Voskhod and the new mechatronic module (motor + its electronic) with new control software developed in TsAGI and MAI will be used to manufacture the new EHA prototype.
EHA validation will be performed according to plan and procedures defined and agreed.
The test bench manufacturing is the goal of this task. Its assembly will be made within the Umbra factory in collaboration with TsAGI and UAC, leader of the task and who will participate of mechanical part manufacturing. Also for this task, about 7 months have been considered for the manufacturing of this bench.
After a preliminary acceptance test, the rig will be transferred to CESA facilities where the experimental activities will be implemented and performed. Initially specialized technicians of Umbra, TsAGI and/or UAC will assist during the tests, if necessary.
All documentation needed to verify correct functioning (Acceptance Test Report) as well as operation manuals will be issued and delivered with the rig. Maintenance manuals will be released if applicable or necessary.
The first task is the definition of the test plan and procedures. The purpose of this activity is the definition of the different tests that need to be performed. This test definition is produced in line with the conclusions reached in task 1.5 actuators and System Test Rig requirements and specifications.
TsAGI is the leader of this activity, which implies the identification of the tests required, the definition of such tests and writing of the documentation. This work will be done with the support of ONERA (responsible of the definition of the test rig specification), CESA (responsible of the SECU definition) and UMBRA/TECNALIA (co-responsible with CESA on the EMA design and manufacture), which participate in the review of the documentation generated.
This task corresponds to the performances of the tests as indicated in the task described above. This task is performed by CESA at CESA facilities using the test rig manufactured in task T4.4 System Test Rig for the EMA/ECU-EHA/ECU-SECU. Although CESA is responsible of the execution of the tests, ONERA, TsAGI, UMBRA and TECNALIA are also involved in the supervision of tests that may require their inputs, (e.g. because of the criticality of the tests, its complexity, or in order to solve some issues during the performance of these).
The tests to be performed will affect the whole system (i.e. EMA, EHA, ECU, SECU), with different combinations of each, and would include at least the following tests (a more exhaustive list will be produced in 5.1):
Mathematical models, analysis and simulation validation:
- With the aim of providing a totally functional mathematical model the previous versions will be adjusted and correlated to configure a final validated model. If needed, ad-hoc Tests in open or closed loop configuration will be carried out to adjust model key parameters and to ensure a good correlation between the mathematical model and the real component behaviour.
- Testing of active/passive and active/active actuators configurations.
- actuators consumption.
- Force-fighting investigation.
Tests and validation concerning the force fighting consequences when two actuators are trying to move the same control surface with asynchronous or antagonist forces:
- Safety and reliability tests associated to HUMS capabilities (system degradation, failure simulation, etc…)
Task 5.3 Results analysis and conclusions
Based on the safety, EMC, thermal assessment, stability margins of the “FCS-actuator-A/C” closed control loop assessments and the rest of the test results, the feasibility of the different studied architectures will be evaluated in terms of actuator performances, overall system performance and its integration as well as A/C weight reduction. Recommendations for future projects will also be given in terms of EMA/EHA and local SMART-hydrosystem technologies development, ways of additional actuation system testing if necessary and the most promising types of flight control actuation system architectures. This task is led by ONERA having inputs of all partners.
In this task the activities concerned with the dissemination of the generated knowledge within the project towards the scientific and industrial communities will be planned in detail. Activities such as paper submission to scientific journals, relevant conferences, funded workshops and seminars will be coordinated with the partners and academic output of the project will be planned and monitored.
The RESEARCH Consortium will promote public awareness throughout the project to:
I. To spread the results that the project will achieve both to the largest possible concerned audience and to targeted stakeholders such as manufacturers, providers, researchers, society, etc.
II. To encourage the different manufacturing sectors and its suppliers implementing RESEARCH results by publishing them, distributing information material to a wide audience during trade fairs and international conferences and most importantly through direct communication with all relevant interest groups.
In addition, the RESEARCH Consortium will prepare an awareness and dissemination plan and will update and deploy it along the project life and beyond. The Dissemination Plan will contain the following elements:
- Identification and classification of target stakeholders to be addressed.
- The dissemination methods and their specific associated activities.
- Schedule and complementarily of the dissemination activities among partners.
- Individual dissemination plans.
- The conditions to ensure proper dissemination of the generated knowledge, related to confidentiality, publication and use of the knowledge.
CESA will implement an internet web platform, as a general communication platform, including information for the general public but also to the scientific and industrial community. Constant updating of the platform along the project will allow interested parties follow the progress of the project. Through the use of specialized tools, it will be ensured that search engines will allocate the project website and display it in the first search results. CORDIS tools such as Cordis wire and Cordis News will be utilized for wide communication of the project results. Project brochure will be created to promote RESEARCH project and facilitate the dissemination of its results. Other means of public awareness will also be used such as press releases, posters, etc. information about the project will also be included in periodic newsletters as well as other similar publications reaching a large part of the European and Russian Aeronautics community.
Task 6.2 Exploitation planning
The exploitation strategy will be here outlined both at a consortium level and at individual partners’ level. An initial exploitation plan will be prepared by month 12 which will be revised and updated by month 18 and at the end of the project. The content of the exploitation plan will be the following:
- In-deep market analysis for the application of RESEARCH technological developments.
- The assessment of the expected socio-economic, environmental and energy impact of the knowledge and technology generated and the factors that would influence their exploitation.
- Identification of possible technical and non-technical barriers to the exploitation of project results such as standardization, regulatory aspects, etc.
- A methodology and strategy for an appropriated management of the knowledge generated in the project and IPR protection.
- IPR strategy and protection according to the interest of the partners and the Consortium Agreement.
- Individual exploitation plans. Exploitation plans will be prepared specifically for each technological partner to develop a methodology and a strategy for appropriate products marketing. An analysis and evaluation of the exploitation potential and strategy of the project results, routes for exploitation, the target users groups and markets, competitor analysis, reviewing all aspects from the viewpoint of potential investors, internal or external, and marketing strategies.
- Cost-benefit feasibility.
WP 7. Management
Leaders: CESA, TsAGI
/ CESA, TsAGI
- CESA will be responsible for establishing an appropriate governance structure. This task will cover the organisation of all formal meetings of the Project including the afterwards circulation to all the Partners of the minutes and decisions taken in such meetings in order to promote and maintain a good level of communication between the partners.
- CESA will ensure the proper achievement of milestones and deliverables, and generally will deal competently and in a timely way with all management difficulties and issues, being responsible for the launch of contingency plans if necessary.
- CESA will provide the overall leadership for the Project and will be responsible for the preparation and delivery of the Project Management Plan and of all activity progress and project reports from inputs received from each of the Partners.
- Risk analysis and mitigation will be also managed, as well as conflict mitigation.
Task 7.2 Overall coordination
/ CESA, TsAGI
- CESA will conduct financial, legal and administrative coordination activities within the consortium and with EC. This task will include the establishment of a sound legal framework for the Project including the EU contract and the consortium agreement. They will also ensure the responsible, timely and auditable use of all funds together with the preparation, in liaison with the financial services of the Partners, of all financial statements and reports requested by the Commission.
- They will also have primary responsibility for the spread of all necessary documentation for the formal progress reports required in the EU contract, from inputs received from each of the partners. CESA will act as a focus point for all communication and exchanges between the Project team and the European Commission.